Journal Article Effects of telephone-delivered lifestyle support on the development of diabetes in participants at high risk of type 2 diabetes: J-DOIT1, a pragmatic cluster randomised trial

Sakane, Naoki  ,  Kotani, Kazuhiko  ,  Takahashi, Kaoru  ,  Sano, Yoshiko  ,  Tsuzaki, Kokoro  ,  Okazaki, Kentaro  ,  Sato, Juichi  ,  Suzuki, Sadao  ,  Morita, Satoshi  ,  Oshima, Yoshitake  ,  Izumi, Kazuo  ,  Kato, Masayuki  ,  Ishizuka, Naoki  ,  Noda, Mitsuhiko  ,  Kuzuya, Hideshi

5 ( 5 ) 2015-08-19 , BMJ Publishing Group
Objectives: To examine the effects of telephonedelivered lifestyle coaching on preventing the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in participants with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Design: Cluster randomised trial. Setting: 40 groups from 17 healthcare divisions in Japan: companies (31), communities (6) and mixed settings (3). Participants: Participants aged 20-65 years with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 5.6-6.9 mmol/L were invited from the 17 healthcare divisions. Randomisation: The groups were then randomly assigned to an intervention or a control arm by independent statisticians according to a computergenerated list. Intervention: The intervention arm received a 1-year telephone-delivered intervention provided by three private lifestyle support centres (at different frequencies: low-frequency (3 times), middle-frequency (6 times) and high-frequency (10 times) support calls). The intervention and control arms both received selfhelp devices such as a weight scale and pedometer. Outcomes: Participants were followed up using data from annual health check-ups and a questionnaire regarding lifestyle. The primary outcome was the development of T2DM defined as FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L, the diagnosis of diabetes, or use of an antidiabetic drug, confirmed by referring to medical cards. Results: Of 14 473 screened individuals, participants were enrolled in either the intervention (n=1240) arm or control (n=1367) arm. Overall, the HR for the development of T2DM in the intervention arm during 5.5 years was 1.00 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.34). In the subanalysis, the HR was 0.59 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.83) in the subgroup that received phone calls the most frequently, compared with the control arm. A limitation of the study includes a lack of blinding. Conclusions: High-frequency telephone-delivered lifestyle support could effectively prevent T2DM in participants with IFG in a primary healthcare setting, although low-frequency and middle-frequency phone calls did not.

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