Journal Article Loss of Hep Par 1 immunoreactivity in the livers of patients with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency

Yamaguchi, Maki  ,  Kataoka, Tatsuki R.  ,  Shibayama, Takahiro  ,  Fukuda, Akinari  ,  Nakazawa, Atsuko  ,  Minamiguchi, Sachiko  ,  Sakurai, Takaki  ,  Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya  ,  Yorifuji, Toru  ,  Kasahara, Mureo  ,  Uemoto, Shinji  ,  Haga, Hironori

68 ( 8 )  , pp.333 - 336 , 2016-06 , Blackwell Publishing
The hepatocyte paraffin 1 (Hep Par 1) antibody is widely used as a hepatocyte marker, recognizing carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), an essential component of the urea cycle. Various missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations occur in the CPS1 gene. In neonatal patients with homozygous CPS1 deficiency (CPS1D), urea cycle defects with resulting severe hyperammonemia can be fatal, though liver transplantation provides a complete cure for CPS1D. We performed Hep Par 1 immunostaining in the explanted livers of 10 liver transplant patients with CPS1D. Seven were negative for Hep Par 1 in the hepatocytes and the other three showed normal diffuse granular cytoplasmic staining. As expected, all three Hep Par 1-positive patients had at least one missense mutation, and all four patients who had only nonsense or frameshift mutations were Hep Par 1-negative. The other three patients were unexpectedly negative for Hep Par 1, even though each had one missense mutation. These results suggest that CPS1D can be related to the loss of Hep Par 1 reactivity due to the loss of protein production, a one amino acid substitution resulting in an abortive protein product, or both. Hep Par 1 immunohistochemistry can be used as a simple method to confirm CPS1D.

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