Journal Article Leader-Containing Uncapped Viral Transcript Activates RIG-I in Antiviral Stress Granules

Oh, Seong Wook  ,  Onomoto, Koji  ,  Wakimoto, Mai  ,  Onoguchi, Kazuhide  ,  Ishidate, Fumiyoshi  ,  Fujiwara, Takahiro  ,  Yoneyama, Mitsutoshi  ,  Kato, Hiroki  ,  Fujita, Takashi

12 ( 2 ) 2016-02-10 , Public Library of Science
RIG-I triggers antiviral responses by recognizing viral RNA (vRNA) in the cytoplasm. However, the spatio-temporal dynamics of vRNA sensing and signal transduction remain elusive. We investigated the time course of events in cells infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a non-segmented negative-strand RNA virus. RIG-I was recruited to viral replication complexes (vRC) and triggered minimal primary type I interferon (IFN) production. RIG-I subsequently localized to antiviral stress granules (avSG) induced after vRC formation. The inhibition of avSG attenuated secondary IFN production, suggesting avSG as a platform for efficient vRNA detection. avSG selectively captured positive-strand vRNA, and poly(A)+ RNA induced IFN production. Further investigations suggested that uncapped vRNA derived from read-through transcription was sensed by RIG-I in avSG. These results highlight how viral infections stimulate host stress responses, thereby selectively recruiting uncapped vRNA to avSG, in which RIG-I and other components cooperate in an efficient antiviral program.

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