Journal Article Gaps between the subjective needs of older facility residents and how care workers understand them: A pairwise cross-sectional study Health Services Research

Ohura, Tomoko  ,  Higashi, Takahiro  ,  Ishizaki, Tatsuro  ,  Nakayama, Takeo

92016-01-28 , BioMed Central Ltd.
Background: To promote active daily living and improve the quality of life of older facility residents, it is important that care staff understand their day-to-day activities and needs. However, only a few studies have examined the needs of older residents and how care workers understand them. This study aimed to examine the subjective needs of older residents at aged care facilities, care workers' understanding of these needs, and the gaps that exist between them. Methods: Structured interviews with older residents with no severe cognitive impairment in ten Japanese aged care facilities and a questionnaire survey of care workers were conducted in 2008 regarding resident subjective needs. The questionnaire, which had satisfactory factorial validity, internal consistency, and reproducibility, consisted of seven items on basic activities of daily living (BADL), five items on instrumental ADL (IADL), eight items on environment and lifestyle (EL), and five items on emotion (EM). Pair-wise analyses were performed to compare responses. Results: Responses of 115 pairs were analyzed (residents ≥75 years, 85 %; 21 men, 94 women). Median proportions of residents with IADL (66 %) and EL (69 %) needs were lower compared with those with BADL (83 %) and EM (91 %) needs. Median proportions of care workers understanding IADL (55 %) and EL (60 %) needs were lower compared with those understanding BADL (87 %) and EM (87 %) needs. Less than half of the care workers understood IADL needs for household chores (30 %) and money management (43 %), and an EL need for playing a role (41 %). Conclusions: Gaps were found between resident subjective needs and how care workers understood them. Specifically, care workers underestimated older residents' IADL and EL needs, especially with regard to playing a role. These results highlight the need for care workers to set goals based on each resident's subjective needs and plan strategies for care provision accordingly.

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