||Advective diffusion of volcanic plume captured by dense GNSS network around Sakurajima volcano: A case study of the vulcanian eruption on July 24, 2012
Ohta, YusakuIguchi, Masato
672015-09-22 , SpringerOpen
Data from a dense GNSS network were used to investigate the temporal and spatial development of a volcanic plume during the eruptive event at Sakurajima volcano in Japan on July 24, 2012. We extracted the post-fit phase residuals (PPR) of ionosphere-free linear combinations for each satellite based on the precise point positioning (PPP) approach. Temporal and spatial PPR anomalies clearly detected the movement of the volcanic plume. The maximum height of the crossing points of anomalous PPR paths was determined to be approximately 4000 m. We also compared the estimated wet zenith tropospheric delay with the estimated PPR anomalies, which suggested that we might successfully extract the PPR anomalies caused by the eruptive event. We then compared the PPR with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) anomalies. Only the path passing just above the crater showed significant change in the SNR value, suggesting that the volcanic ash and the water vapor within the volcanic plume became separated after reaching a high altitude because of ash fall during the plume's lateral movement. Each of the two observables might reflect different characteristics of the water vapor and volcanic ash.