Journal Article Statistical properties of superflares on solar-type stars based on 1-min cadence data

Maehara, Hiroyuki  ,  Shibayama, Takuya  ,  Notsu, Yuta  ,  Notsu, Shota  ,  Honda, Satoshi  ,  Nogami, Daisaku  ,  Shibata, Kazunari

672015-04-29 , SpringerOpen
ISSN:1880-5981
Description
We searched for superflares on solar-type stars using Kepler data with 1-min sampling in order to detect superflares with a short duration. We found 187 superflares on 23 solar-type stars whose bolometric energy ranges from the order of 10<sup>32</sup> to 10<sup>36</sup> erg. Some superflares show multiple peaks with the peak separation of the order of 100 to 1, 000 s which is comparable to the periods of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares. Using these new data combined with the results from the data with 30-min sampling, we found that the occurrence frequency (dN/dE) of superflares as a function of flare energy (E) shows the power-law distribution (dN/dE∞E <sup>-α</sup> ) with α∼-1.5 for 10<sup>33</sup><E<10<sup>36</sup> erg which is consistent with the previous results. The average occurrence rate of superflares with the energy of 10<sup>33</sup> erg which is equivalent to X100 solar flares is about once in 500 to 600 years. The upper limit of energy released by superflares is basically comparable to a fraction of the magnetic energy stored near starspots which is estimated from the photometry. We also found that the duration of superflares (τ) increases with the flare energy (E) as τ∞E <sup>0.39 ± 0.03</sup>. This can be explained if we assume the time scale of flares is determined by the Alfvén time.
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http://repository.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2433/212432/1/s40623-015-0217-z.pdf

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