||Ca²⁺ microdomains organized by junctophilins.
Takeshima, Hiroshi ,
Hoshijima, MasahikoSong, Long-Sheng
356 , 2015-10 , Elsevier Ltd.
Excitable cells typically possess junctional membrane complexes (JMCs) constructed by the plasma membrane and the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) for channel crosstalk. These JMCs are termed triads in skeletal muscle, dyads in cardiac muscle, peripheral couplings in smooth and developing striated muscles, and subsurface cisterns in neurons. Junctophilin subtypes contribute to the formation and maintenance of JMCs by serving as a physical bridge between the plasma membrane and ER/SR membrane in different cell types. In muscle cells, junctophilin deficiency prevents JMC formation and functional crosstalk between cell-surface Ca(2+) channels and ER/SR Ca(2+) release channels. Human genetic mutations in junctophilin subtypes are linked to congenital hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, growing evidence suggests that dysregulation of junctophilins induces pathological alterations in skeletal and cardiac muscle.