||Significance of Ser-188 in human mitochondrial NAD kinase as determined by phosphomimetic and phosphoresistant amino-acid substitutions.
Kawabata, Yutaka ,
Murata, KousakuKawai, Shigeyuki
Biochemical and biophysical research communications
695 , 2015-12-25 , Elsevier Inc.
Human mitochondrial NAD kinase is a crucial enzyme responsible for the synthesis of mitochondrial NADP(+). Despite its significance, little is known about the regulation of this enzyme in the mitochondria. Several putative and known phosphorylation sites within the protein have been found using phosphoproteomics, and here, we examined the effect of phosphomimetic mutations at six of these sites. The enzymatic activity was downregulated by a substitution of an Asp residue at Ser-289 and Ser-376, but not a substitution of Ala, suggesting that the phosphorylation of these residues downregulates the enzyme. Moreover, the activity was completely inhibited by substituting Ser-188 with an Asp, Glu, or in particular Ala, which highlights two possibilities: first, that Ser-188 is critical for catalytic activity, and second, that phosphorylation of Ser-188 inhibits the activity. Ser-188, Ser-289, and Ser-376 were found to be highly conserved in the primary structures of mitochondrial NAD kinase homologs in higher animals. Moreover, Ser-188 has been frequently detected in human and mouse phosphorylation site studies, whereas Ser-289 and Ser-376 have not. Taken together, this indicates that Ser-188 (and perhaps the other residues) is an important phosphorylation site that can downregulate the NAD kinase activity of this critical enzyme.