Departmental Bulletin Paper アフリカ狩猟採集民ブッシュマンの昔と今 : 半世紀の記録
The Bushmen: A Half-Century Chronicle of an African Hunter-Gatherer

田中, 二郎

17pp.127 - 137 , 2016-03-28 , 京都大学ヒマラヤ研究会; 京都大学ブータン友好プログラム; 京都大学霊長類学・ワイルドライフサイエンス・リーディング大学院
特集4: 雲南懇話会からの寄稿 = Special Issue 4: Contribution from the Yunnan Forum
1966年以来, カラハリ砂漠で野生の動物を狩り, 植物を採集して暮らすブッシュマンの生活と社会を観察調査してきました。石器時代を彷彿とさせる生活は, ボツワナ政府主導により1979年から定住化, 集住化の道を歩むことになりました。1997年にはついに故郷の地を追われて新しい居留地へと移住を強いられ, 一千人を超える大集落で生活は激変しました。写真をお見せしながら, 昔の狩猟採集生活とその後の大集落での生活へと急速に変容をきたしてきた様子を紹介します。
I have been engaged in observational research since 1966 on the life and society of the Bushmen (San) who lived on hunting and gathering in the Kalahari Desert. Their migratory life by hunting and gathering which reminded us of the lifestyle of the Stone Age had begun to change rapidly to the sedentary life led by the settlement scheme of the Botswana Government in 1979. People of the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR) came together to live in the settlement from quite far place, probably as far as some 200 km away. The population of the settlement reached 600 in a few years. In 1997 people were moved again to the new settlement outside of the CKGR through the Development Scheme of the Government and the population of the new settlement increased to more than 1000. People obtained cattle from and were encouraged to cultivate corns and beans by the government but they cannot subsist on without the distribution of rationed food from the government. I analyze and introduce the process of these big sociocultural changes from traditional hunting-gathering life to huge settlement life by showing pictures.

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