特集4: 雲南懇話会からの寄稿 = Special Issue 4: Contribution from the Yunnan Forum Grazing systems of herbivores by the minority races and tribes were investigated for the ecosystem conservation in alpine rangelands in China and India from 2001 to 2013. In China, behavior of yaks, vegetation and soil properties, and the ecological evaluation of plateau pikas were investigated in Menyuan (the Hui and the Mongolian) and Yushu (the Tibetan). From comparing the behavior and chemical evaluations of feces of yaks between the two sites, it was considered that the material circulation was lower in Yushu than in Menyuan. In Yushu, the ratio of rumination/grazing in warm season was increased from 2009 to 2012. It was estimated to be affected by climatic change and the decrease of yak numbers by the natural disasters. Vegetation survey showed that grazing seasons of rangelands affected to the plant species diversity and aboveground biomass. The soil fertility has not been negatively affected by extensive yak-grazing over the previous decade. The population density of plateau pikas was affected by vegetation and soil properties. In India, the migrating routes of nomadic pastoralists (the Bakkarwal, the Gujjar and the Changpa) were traced and vegetation survey of alpine rangelands grazed by their goat, sheep, yak, etc. were conducted in Dachigam National Park and Changthang Wildlife Sanctuary. MODIS satellite data products were analyzed for 10 years and indicated that heavy-grazed rangeland in Dachigam would be degrading, while weather conditions dominantly explains the year-by-year difference of grass production. The traditional nomadizing system of Changpa has been preventing the vegetation from degradation. Values of isotopes (δ_13C, δ_15N) of yak tail hairs taken in Menyuan, Yushu and Changthang were affected by grazing sites, seasons, years, grazing systems, herds and individuals.