Competing Voices in the Shangshu : An Analysis of "Gao Yao mo" and "Yao dian
329 , 2015-12-20 , 京都大學人文科學研究所
While a long commentarial tradition has aimed to stress the coherence of classical and canonical Chinese literature, the "composite nature" of early Chinese texts has by now become widely acknowledged. This means that structural analyses rather than unifying commentaries of these texts would seem to be called for. This article examines the text-ual integrity of two Shangshu chapters, "Yao dian" and "Gao Yao mo." Based on an analysis of linguistic usage, it argues that both chapters consist of at least two conflicting parts that appear to be in outright opposition to one another. Simply put, one part seems to represent the perspective of bureaucratic government, while the other one Yao represents charismatic rulership. While these two chapters show very similar patterns of layering, the same cannot be said for other parts of the Shangshu. An analysis of "Lü xing" shows that, while also containing competing voices, its ideological and linguistic fault lines are different from those in "Yao dian" and "Gao Yao mo." The structure of the Shangshu is not easily reduced to a few editors who added recurring layers throughout the entire collection. Rather, it appears that the "composite nature" differs for almost every chapter of the Shangshu : they will all have to be analyzed individually.