Journal Article Phytochrome-mediated regulation of cell division and growth during regeneration and sporeling development in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

Nishihama, Ryuichi  ,  Ishizaki, Kimitsune  ,  Hosaka, Masashi  ,  Matsuda, Yoriko  ,  Kubota, Akane  ,  Kohchi, Takayuki

128 ( 3 )  , pp.407 - 421 , 2015-05 , Springer Japan
First online: 05 April 2015
Light regulates various aspects of development throughout the life cycle of sessile land plants. Photoreceptors, such as the red (R) and far-red (FR) light receptors phytochromes, play pivotal roles in modulating developmental programs. Reflecting high developmental plasticity, plants can regenerate tissues, organs, and whole bodies from varieties of cells. Among land plants, bryophytes exhibit extraordinary competency of regeneration under hormone-free conditions. As an environmental factor, light plays critical roles in regeneration of bryophytes. However, how light regulates regeneration remains unknown. Here we show that using the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, which contains a single phytochrome gene, the phytochrome regulates re-entry into the cell cycle and cell shape in newly regenerating tissues. Our morphological and cytological observations revealed that S-phase entry of G1-arrested epidermal cells around the midrib on the ventral surface of thallus explants was greatly retarded in the dark or under phytochrome-inactive R/FR cycle irradiation conditions, where, nevertheless, small, laterally narrow regenerants were eventually formed. Thus, consistent with earlier descriptions published over a century ago, light is not essential for, but exerts profound effects on regeneration in M. polymorpha. Ventral cells in regenerants grown under R/FR cycle conditions were longer and narrower than those under R cycle. Expression of a constitutively active mutant of M. polymorpha phytochrome allowed regeneration of well grown, widely expanded thalli even in the dark when sugar was supplied, further demonstrating that the phytochrome signal promotes cell proliferation, which is rate-limited by sucrose availability. Similar effects of R and FR irradiation on cell division and elongation were observed in sporelings as well. Thus, besides activation of photosynthesis, major roles of R in regeneration of M. polymorpha are to facilitate proliferation of rounder cells through the phytochrome by mechanisms that are likely to operate in the sporeling.

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