||Effects of Visual Cues of a Moving Model Predator on Body Patterns in Cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis.
Okamoto, Kohei ,
Mori, AkiraIkeda, Yuzuru
344 , 2015-08 , The Herpetological Society of Japan
We examined the effects of predator-prey distance (PPD) and trajectory of the predator on the body patterns that the pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, shows in response to a predator. A model predator moving in three different trajectories was presented to the cuttlefish: T1, approached the cuttlefish but bypassed above; T2, approached directly toward the cuttlefish; T3, bypassed the cuttlefish both vertically and horizontally. We divided the body patterns that the cuttlefish expressed into seven categories, i.e., "uniform light", "disruptive", "center circle", "dark square", "vertical stripe", "all dark" and "eyespots". In T1, the number of individuals that showed "dark square" increased as the model approached the cuttlefish, whereas the number of individuals that showed "disruptive" decreased. In T2, the number of individuals that showed "all dark" and "eyespots" increased as the model approached the cuttlefish. In T3, the number of individuals that showed "dark square" and "vertical stripe" increased as the model approached the cuttlefish, and it tended to decrease as the model receded from the cuttlefish. These results demonstrate that S. pharaonis changes its body patterns according to PPD and the trajectory of the predator, which would affect predation risk and/or predator perception.