Journal Article Clinical significance of high-dose cytarabine added to cyclophosphamide/total-body irradiation in bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for myeloid malignancy.

Arai, Yasuyuki  ,  Aoki, Kazunari  ,  Takeda, June  ,  Kondo, Tadakazu  ,  Eto, Tetsuya  ,  Ota, Shuichi  ,  Hashimoto, Hisako  ,  Fukuda, Takahiro  ,  Ozawa, Yukiyasu  ,  Kanda, Yoshinobu  ,  Kato, Chiaki  ,  Kurokawa, Mineo  ,  Iwato, Koji  ,  Onizuka, Makoto  ,  Ichinohe, Tatsuo  ,  Atsuta, Yoshiko  ,  Takami, Akiyoshi

82015-09-04 , BioMed Central Ltd.
[Background]Addition of high-dose cytarabine (HDCA) to the conventional cyclophosphamide/total-body irradiation (CY/TBI) regimen significantly improved prognosis after cord blood transplantation (CBT) for adult acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The efficacy of HDCA in bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (BMT/PBSCT), however, has not yet been elucidated. [Findings]We conducted a cohort study to compare the prognosis of HDCA/CY/TBI (N = 435) and CY/TBI (N = 1667) in BMT/PBSCT for AML/MDS using a Japanese transplant registry database. The median age was 38 years, and 86.0 % of the patients had AML. Unrelated donors comprised 54.6 %, and 63.9 % of donors were human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched. Overall survival (OS) was not improved in the HDCA/CY/TBI group (adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.14; p = 0.13). Neutrophil engraftment was inferior (HR, 0.80; p < 0.01), and the incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis and thrombotic microangiopathy increased in HDCA/CY/TBI (HR, 1.47 and 1.60; p = 0.06 and 0.04, respectively), leading to significantly higher non-relapse mortality (NRM; HR, 1.48; p < 0.01). Post-transplant relapse and tumor-related mortality were not suppressed by the addition of HDCA. [Conclusions]This study indicated the inefficacy of HDCA/CY/TBI in BMT/PBSCT for AML/MDS. Our results should be validated in large-scale prospective studies.

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