〈特集〉現代東南アジアにおける宗教の越境現象―タイ，ミャンマーを中心に― In this paper, I consider the Buddhist practices of the Pa-O in the Shan State after the independence ofMyanmar (the Union of Burma). The Pa-O, a group of Karen speakers, is an ethnic minority living inMyanmar. Most of them are Theravada Buddhists and could be considered as a Buddhist minority inMyanmar. Generally speaking, the Buddhism of ethnic minorities in mainland Southeast Asian countriesis regarded as resulting from the diffusion of Buddhist traditions from powerful majorities. It is deemed tohave an assimilation effect on minorities into the Buddhist majority of each country. As for the Pa-O, it issaid that their Buddhist practices have been influenced by neighboring Buddhist majorities: Mon, Burmese, and Shan. From this diffusionist point of view, the Pa-O have been described as passive actors who receiveda foreign religion under the cultural and political influence of majorities.However, this paper will argue that we should not view the Pa-O as merely an ethnic minority but alsoas “Buddhists.” We demonstrate the endeavors of Pa-O Buddhists to construct their own Buddhist traditionby creating sacred place through the renovation of ancient pagodas, organizing monks and monasteries, and advancing Buddhist education for lay people.