Journal Article Comparison among Magnus/Floquet/Fer expansion schemes in solid-state NMR.

Takegoshi, K  ,  Miyazawa, Norihiro  ,  Sharma, Kshama  ,  Madhu, P K

142 ( 13 ) 2015-04-02 , AIP Publishing
We here revisit expansion schemes used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the calculation of effective Hamiltonians and propagators, namely, Magnus, Floquet, and Fer expansions. While all the expansion schemes are powerful methods there are subtle differences among them. To understand the differences, we performed explicit calculation for heteronuclear dipolar decoupling, cross-polarization, and rotary-resonance experiments in solid-state NMR. As the propagator from the Fer expansion takes the form of a product of sub-propagators, it enables us to appreciate effects of time-evolution under Hamiltonians with different orders separately. While 0th-order average Hamiltonian is the same for the three expansion schemes with the three cases examined, there is a case that the 2nd-order term for the Magnus/Floquet expansion is different from that obtained with the Fer expansion. The difference arises due to the separation of the 0th-order term in the Fer expansion. The separation enables us to appreciate time-evolution under the 0th-order average Hamiltonian, however, for that purpose, we use a so-called left-running Fer expansion. Comparison between the left-running Fer expansion and the Magnus expansion indicates that the sign of the odd orders in Magnus may better be reversed if one would like to consider its effect in order.

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