Journal Article Regulation of organ straightening and plant posture by an actin–myosin XI cytoskeleton

Okamoto, Keishi  ,  Ueda, Haruko  ,  Shimada, Tomoo  ,  Tamura, Kentaro  ,  Kato, Takehide  ,  Tasaka, Masao  ,  Morita, Miyo Terao  ,  Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

1 ( 4 ) 2015-03-23 , Nature Publishing Group
植物の姿勢を決めるしくみの解明 -まっすぐになろうとする力-. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2015-04-07.
Plants are able to bend nearly every organ in response to environmental stimuli such as gravity and light. After this first phase, the responses to stimuli are restrained by an independent mechanism, or even reversed, so that the organ will stop bending and attain its desired posture. This phenomenon of organ straightening has been called autotropism and autostraightening and modelled as proprioception. However, the machinery that drives organ straightening and where it occurs are mostly unknown. Here, we show that the straightening of inflorescence stems is regulated by an actin–myosin XI cytoskeleton in specialized immature fibre cells that are parallel to the stem and encircle it in a thin band. Arabidopsis mutants defective in myosin XI (specifically XIf and XIk) or ACTIN8 exhibit hyperbending of stems in response to gravity, an effect independent of the physical properties of the shoots. The actin–myosin XI cytoskeleton enables organs to attain their new position more rapidly than would an oscillating series of diminishing overshoots in environmental stimuli. We propose that the long actin filaments in elongating fibre cells act as a bending tensile sensor to perceive the organ's posture and trigger the straightening system.

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