Departmental Bulletin Paper ブータンの遊び歌ツァンモ : 学校教育における継承の取り組み

伊野, 義博  ,  黒田, 清子  ,  加藤, 富美子  ,  権藤, 敦子  ,  山本, 幸正  ,  タシ, ツェワン  ,  ウォンチュク, ペマ  ,  Ino, Yoshihiro  ,  Kuroda, Kiyoko  ,  Kato, Tomiko  ,  Gondo, Atsuko  ,  Yamamoto, Yukimasa  ,  Tashi, Tshewang  ,  Wangchuk, Pema

Tsangmo is a type of playful singing dialogue that can be found in all regions of Bhutan. Tsangmo emerged from Bhutan's religious context and was fostered throughout its history and cultural climate. It is enjoyed as a pastime during breaks in grazing as well as on other occasions, such as when families gather for Buddhist memorial services. Bhutan's recent decades of modernization have, however, drastically changed the state of traditional Tsangmo and its transmission is becoming threatened. On the other hand, Tsangmo is taught in many schools as part of traditional culture education or general education through Bhutan's national language of Dzongkha. Tsangmo tournaments are also frequently held. This paper examines the current state of Tsangmo, with a particular focus on Tsangmo in school education. Along with outlining the form that Tsangmo takes in schools, with specific attention to the case of Tsangmo tournaments, the significance of and challenges for the transmission of Tsangmo through school education are considered. The school discussed in this paper is Samtengang Central School, which is located in Nyishog gewog, Wangdue Phodrang Dzongkhag, Bhutan. Tsangmo tournaments have a clear place in annual school activities and usually consist of competitions between houses (groups made up of students across different grades) within the school. The Tsangmo tournament that was observed was a competition between two groups, consisting of both males and females, in a format where one student sings to the other group and then one student from that group sing in response. This form of group competition is the same as the traditional Tsangmo Cheyni that has been observed in previous investigations. The tournament took place in front of a gathering of the entire student population of the school. On the day, there were forty-three calls and responses for a total of eighty-six songs. Students skillfully prepared three ancient melodies and were capable of responding swiftly to the questions from the other group. The content of the poetry included both traditional texts and, in some cases, relevant improvisation. Additionally, the students were capable appropriately conveying the character of various songs such as Nyen Lue ("a song that is easy on the ears") and Dra Lue ("fighting song"), greatly delighting the audience. In this way, Tsangmo takes its place alongside other forms of traditional song and dance in the educational activities of schools in Bhutan. In schools, Tsangmo retains its traditional character while simultaneously undergoing changes as it is transmitted.

Number of accesses :  

Other information