Departmental Bulletin Paper Molecular-based analysis of genetic diversity and classification of Japanese melon breeding lines

Dung, Tran Phuong  ,  Tanaka, Katsunori  ,  Akashi, Yukari  ,  Thuy, Duong Thanh  ,  Nishida, Hidetaka  ,  Kato, Kenji

105pp.7 - 15 , 2016-02-01 , 岡山大学農学部
For the breeding of Japanese netted melon, various types of foreign cultivars have been utilized for improving adaptability, disease and pest resistance, fruit quality and so on. However, little is known about their genetic diversity and relationships, since most cultivars derived from crosses between various horticultural groups. To figure out the genetic structure of Japanese melon, in this study, 57 melon accessions from three horticultural groups were examined using 55 RAPD markers produced by 24 RAPD primers. Genetic diversity of the Japanese netted melon was as high as those of cultivar groups of Groups Cantalupensis and Inodorus, while it was low in Group Conomon irrespective of large variations in fruit traits. Cluster analysis and PCO analysis based on genetic distance showed that Group Conomon was distantly related to other melon accessions. Among the latter, European cantaloupe (nonnetted) and American open-field type (netted) proved to be genetically close, while England glasshouse melon (netted) including ‘Earl’s Favourite’ is distantly related to these two groups and closely related with Group Inodorus. It was therefore suggested that England glasshouse type was established from hybrids between European cantaloupe and Group Inodorus. Japanese netted melon was most closely related with England glasshouse type, irrespective of the fact that various kinds of melon accessions have been crossed to improve adaptability, disease resistance and so on. In contrast, pure line cultivars of the Japanese netted melon bred by pure line selection from ‘Earl's Favourite’ or by crossing ‘Earl’s Favourite’ with ‘British Queen’ were confirmed to be mostly homogenous, and it was difficult to establish RAPD markers to discriminate each cultivar. Group Conomon var. makuwa and var. conomon, which have been cultivated and utilized as different crops, proved to be genetically indistinguishable and were considered to share the same gene pool.

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