||The Roles of ROS and Caspases in TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis and Necroptosis in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Zhang, Min ,
Harashima, Nanae ,
Moritani, Tamami ,
Huang, WeidongHarada, Mamoru
, p.e0127386 , 2015-05-22 , Public Library of Science
Death signaling provided by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can induce death in cancer cells with little cytotoxicity to normal cells; this cell death has been thought to involve caspase-dependent apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also mediators that induce cell death, but their roles in TRAIL-induced apoptosis have not been elucidated fully. In the current study, we investigated ROS and caspases in human pancreatic cancer cells undergoing two different types of TRAIL-induced cell death, apoptosis and necroptosis. TRAIL treatment increased ROS in two TRAIL-sensitive pancreatic cancer cell lines, MiaPaCa-2 and BxPC-3, but ROS were involved in TRAIL-induced apoptosis only in MiaPaCa-2 cells. Unexpectedly, inhibition of ROS by either N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a peroxide inhibitor, or Tempol, a superoxide inhibitor, increased the annexin V-/propidium iodide (PI)^+ early necrotic population in TRAIL-treated cells. Additionally, both necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1), and siRNA-mediated knockdown of RIP3 decreased the annexin V^-/PI^+ early necrotic population after TRAIL treatment. Furthermore, an increase in early apoptosis was induced in TRAIL-treated cancer cells under inhibition of either caspase-2 or -9. Caspase-2 worked upstream of caspase-9, and no crosstalk was observed between ROS and caspase-2/-9 in TRAIL-treated cells. Together, these results indicate that ROS contribute to TRAIL-induced apoptosis in MiaPaCa-2 cells, and that ROS play an inhibitory role in TRAIL-induced necroptosis of MiaPaCa-2 and BxPC-3 cells, with caspase-2 and -9 playing regulatory roles in this process.