In the early stage of climate change negotiation, the European Union was recognized as an influential actor with the structural and directional leadership. However it was taken to the peripheral position at COP15 while big emitters such as US and China took initiative in the conference. Then the EU decided to change the negotiation strategy by strengthening the aspects of instrumental and idea -based leadership to complement the shortage of structural leadership, and consequently contributed to adopt the Par is Agreement at COP21. Normative elements in the directional leadership are very fragile compared to powerful elements consisting of the structural leadership especially in the case of climate change negotiations, but are necessary to lead to ambitious tar gets and
policy innovations for the world, as well as the first mover advantages for the EU itself. The EU ’s “leadership by example” will therefore continue to play an important role as agenda -setter, advocator or normative power in the climate change regime. The EU is even now seeking its international leadership in the climate change policy, though it faces a lot of internal and external difficulties such as Brexit, US Trump government ’s policy and competitive issues, which seem to impede the EU leadership.