Journal Article Degradation of Incretins and Modulation of Blood Glucose Levels by Periodontopathic Bacterial Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4

Ohara-Nemoto, Yuko  ,  Nakasato, Manami  ,  Shimoyama, Yu  ,  Baba, Tomomi T.  ,  Kobayakawa, Takeshi  ,  Ono, Toshio  ,  Yaegashi, Takashi  ,  Kimura, Shigenobu  ,  Nemoto, Takayuki K.

85 ( 9 )  , p.e00277-17 , 2017-09 , American Society for Microbiology
Severe periodontitis is known to aggravate diabetes mellitus, though molecular events related to that link have not been fully elucidated. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogen of periodontitis, expresses dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), which is involved in regulation of blood glucose levels by cleaving incretins in humans. We examined the enzymatic characteristics of DPP4 from P. gingivalis as well as two other periodontopathic bacteria, Tannerella forsythia and Prevotella intermedia, and determined whether it is capable of regulating blood glucose levels. Cell-associated DPP4 activity was found in those microorganisms, which was effectively suppressed by inhibitors of human DPP4, and molecules sized 73 kDa in P. gingivalis, and 71 kDa in T. forsythia and P. intermedia were immunologically detected. The kcat/Km values of recombinant DPP4s ranged from 721 ± 55 to 1283 ± 23 μM-1sec-1 toward Gly-Pro-4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide (MCA), while those were much lower for His-Ala-MCA. MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed the His/Tyr-Ala dipeptide release from the N-termini of incretins, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, respectively, with the action of microbial DPP4. Moreover, intravenous injection of DPP4 into mice decreased plasma active GLP-1 and insulin levels, accompanied by a substantial elevation in blood glucose over the control after oral glucose administration. These results are the first to show that periodontopathic bacterial DPP4 is capable of modulating blood glucose levels the same as mammalian DPP4, thus the incidence of periodontopathic bacteremia may exacerbate diabetes mellitus via molecular events of bacterial DPP4 activities.

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