Journal Article Regional Differences in the Prevalence of Major Opportunistic Infections among Antiretroviral-Naïve Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients in Japan, Northern Thailand, Northern Vietnam, and the Philippines

Gangcuangco, Louie Mar A.  ,  Sawada, Ikumi  ,  Tsuchiya, Naho  ,  Do, Cuong D.  ,  Pham, Thanh Thuy T.  ,  Rojanawiwat, Archawin  ,  Alejandria, Marissa  ,  Leyritana, Katerina  ,  Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki  ,  Pathipvanich, Panita  ,  Ariyoshi, Koya

97 ( 1 )  , pp.49 - 56 , 2017-07 , The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
To identify regional differences in the distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Asia, the medical records of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients who attended the following tertiary hospitals from 2003 to 2011 were reviewed: Nagoya Medical Center (NMC, Nagoya, Japan), Lampang Hospital (LPH, Lampang, northern Thailand), Bach Mai Hospital (BMH, Hanoi, northern Vietnam), and Philippine General Hospital (PGH, Manila, Philippines). Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associations between country of origin and risk of major OIs. In total, 1,505 patients were included: NMC, N = 365; LPH, N = 442; BMH, N = 384; and PGH, N = 314. The median age was 32 years, and 73.3% of all patients were male. The median CD4 count was 200 cells/μL. Most patients at NMC and PGH were men who have sex with men. Injection drug users were most common at BMH (35.7%). Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) was most common at PGH (N = 75) but was rare at NMC (N = 4). Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) prevalence was highest at NMC (N = 74) and lowest at BMH (N = 13). Multivariable logistic regression showed increased odds of TB at PGH (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 42.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.6–122.1), BMH (aOR = 12.6, CI = 3.9–40.3), and LPH (aOR = 6.6, CI = 2.1–21.1) but decreased odds of PCP at BMH (aOR = 0.1, CI = 0.04–0.2) and LPH (aOR = 0.2, CI = 0.1–0.4) compared with those at NMC. The cryptococcosis risk was increased at LPH (aOR = 6.2, CI = 0.9–41.0) compared with that at NMC. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis prevalences were similar in all countries. OI prevalence remained high among ART-naïve patients in our cohort. The risks of TB, PCP, and cryptococcosis, but not CMV retinitis, differed between countries. Improved early HIV detection is warranted.

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