||Methods for Evaluating the Stimuli-Responsive Delivery of Nucleic Acid and Gene Medicines
Fumoto, Shintaro ,
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
648 , 2017-07-01 , 日本薬学会
In this review, we have summarized evaluation methods for the analysis of external stimuli-mediated nucleic acid and gene delivery. Prior to reviewing these evaluation methods, we describe various delivery processes of nucleic acid and gene medicines (small interfering RNA (siRNA), micro RNA, mRNA, plasmid DNA, etc.), which include interaction with blood components, bio-distribution, disposition in the target tissue, cell entry, intracellular trafficking, nuclear localization, and dissociation from the carriers. Next, we discuss the advantages of external stimuli-mediated nucleic acid and gene delivery. External stimuli enable us to effectively deliver nucleic acids and genes to targeted regions. Evaluation methods are required to elucidate the behaviors of nucleic acid and gene medicines in the body. Quantitative analyses of the bio-distribution and in situ disposition in perfused organs, as well as visualization of bio-distribution, transgene expression in the body, and intracellular trafficking of nucleic acid and gene medicines, are all useful in evaluating not only the efficacy and safety of delivery, but also serve as guidelines for the further development of nucleic acid and gene medicines by elucidating delivery problems. Progress in evaluation methods, including tissue optical clearing and super resolution microscopy, will help to better elucidate the in vivo fate of nucleic acid and gene medicines.