||Measuring three aspects of motivation among health workers at primary level health facilities in rural Tanzania
Sato, Miho ,
Maufi, Deogratias ,
Mwingira, Upendo John ,
Leshabari, Melkidezek T. Ohnishi, Mayumi ,
, p.e0176973 , 2017-05-05 , Public Library of Science
Background The threshold of 2.3 skilled health workers per 1,000 population, published in the World Health Report in 2006, has galvanized resources and efforts to attain high coverage of skilled birth attendance. With the inception of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a new threshold of 4.45 doctors, nurses, and midwives per 1,000 population has been identified. This SDG index threshold indicates the minimum density to respond to the needs of health workers to deliver a much broader range of health services, such as management of non-communicable diseases to meet the targets under Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all people of all ages. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the density of skilled health workers in 2012 was 0.5 per 1,000 population, which more than doubled from 0.2 per 1,000 in 2002. However, this showed that Tanzania still faced a critical shortage of skilled health workers. While training, deployment, and retention are important, motivation is also necessary for all health workers, particularly those who serve in rural areas. This study measured the motivation of health workers who were posted at government-run rural primary health facilities. Objectives We sought to measure three aspects of motivation-Management, Performance, and Individual Aspects-among health workers deployed in rural primary level government health facilities. In addition, we also sought to identify the job-related attributes associated with each of these three aspects. Two regions in Tanzania were selected for our research. In each region, we further selected two districts in which we carried out our investigation. The two regions were Lindi, where we carried out our study in the Nachingwea District and the Ruangwa District, and Mbeya, within which the Mbarali and Rungwe Districts were selected for research. All four districts are considered rural. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted by administering a two-part questionnaire in the Kiswahili language. The first part was administered by a researcher, and contained questions for gaining socio-demographic and occupational information. The second part was a self-administered questionnaire that contained 45 statements used to measure three aspects of motivation among health workers. For analyzing the data, we performed multivariate regression analysis in order to evaluate the simultaneous effects of factors on the outcomes of the motivation scores in the three areas of Management, Performance, and Individual Aspects. Results Motivation was associated with marital status (p = 0.009), having a job description (p<0.001), and number of years in the current profession (<1 year: P = 0.043, <7 years: P = 0.042) for Management Aspects; having a job description (p<0.001) for Performance Aspects; and salary scale (p = 0.029) for Individual Aspects. Conclusion Having a clear job description motivates health workers. The existing Open Performance Review and Appraisal System, of which job descriptions are the foundation, needs to be institutionalized in order to effectively manage the health workforce in resource-limited settings.