Gene-Activated Matrix Comprised of Atelocollagen and Plasmid DNA Encoding BMP4 or Runx2 Promotes Rat Cranial Bone AugmentationGene-Activated Matrix Comprised of Atelocollagen and Plasmid DNA Encoding BMP4 or Runx2 Promotes Rat Cranial Bone Augmentation BMP4/Runx2遺伝子活性化基質によるラット頭蓋骨骨増生の試み
174 , 2015-03-20 , Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
To date, therapeutic method for in vivo gene delivery has not been established on bone engineering though its potential usefulness has been suggested. For clinical applications, an effective condition should be developed to transfer the genes in vivo without any transfection reagents or virus vectors. In this study, to facilitate the clinical setting of this strategy, particularly aimed at atrophic bone repair, we simply investigated whether manufactured gene-activated matrix (GAM) with atelocollagen containing a certain amount of plasmid (p) DNA encoding osteogenic proteins could augment the cranial bone in rat. GAMs were manufactured by mixing 0.02, 0.1, or 1 mg of AcGFP plasmid vectors harboring cDNA of BMP4 (pBMP4) or Runx2 (pRunx2) with 2% bovine atelocollagen and β-tricalcium phosphate granules. Before manufacturing GAMs, to determine the biological activity of generated pDNAs, we confirmed GFP expression and increased level of alkaline phosphatase activities in MC3T3-E1 cells transfected with pBMP4 or pRunx2 during culture. Then, GAMs were lyophilized and transplanted to onlay placement on the cranium. At 2 weeks of transplantation, GFP-expressing cells could be detectable in only GAMs containing 1 mg of AcGFP plasmid vectors. Then, at 4 weeks, significant bone formation was recognized in GAMs containing 1 mg of pDNAs encoding BMP4 or Runx2 but not in 0.02 or 0.1 mg of GAMs. These newly formed bone tissues surrounded by osteocalcin-stained area were augmented markedly until 8 weeks after transplantation. In contrast, minimal bone formation was observed in GAMs without harboring cDNA of osteogenic proteins. Meanwhile, when GAMs were transplanted to the cranial bone defect, bone formation was detectable in specimens containing 1 mg of pBMP4 or pRunx2 at 8 weeks as well. Thus, atelocollagen-based GAM reliably could form the engineered bone even for the vertical augmentation when containing a certain amount of plasmid vectors encoding osteogenic proteins. This study supports facilitating the clinical application of GAM for bone engineering.