Journal Article Mannose-recognition mutant of the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin CEL-I engineered by site-directed mutagenesis

Moriuchi, Hiromi  ,  Unno, Hideaki  ,  Goda, Shuichiro  ,  Tateno, Hiroaki  ,  Hirabayashi, Jun  ,  Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu

1850 ( 7 )  , pp.1457 - 1465 , 2015-07 , Elsevier
Background CEL-I is a galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata. Its carbohydrate-binding site contains a QPD (Gln-Pro-Asp) motif, which is generally recognized as the galactose specificity-determining motif in the C-type lectins. In our previous study, replacement of the QPD motif by an EPN (Glu-Pro-Asn) motif led to a weak binding affinity for mannose. Therefore, we examined the effects of an additional mutation in the carbohydrate-binding site on the specificity of the lectin. Methods Trp105 of EPN-CEL-I was replaced by a histidine residue using site-directed mutagenesis, and the binding affinity of the resulting mutant, EPNH-CEL-I, was examined by sugar-polyamidoamine dendrimer assay, isothermal titration calorimetry, and glycoconjugate microarray analysis. Tertiary structure of the EPNH-CEL-I/mannose complex was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Results Sugar-polyamidoamine dendrimer assay and glycoconjugate microarray analysis revealed a drastic change in the specificity of EPNH-CEL-I from galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine to mannose. The association constant of EPNH-CEL-I for mannose was determined to be 3.17 × 103 M- 1 at 25 °C. Mannose specificity of EPNH-CEL-I was achieved by stabilization of the binding of mannose in a correct orientation, in which the EPN motif can form proper hydrogen bonds with 3- and 4-hydroxy groups of the bound mannose. Conclusions Specificity of CEL-I can be engineered by mutating a limited number of amino acid residues in addition to the QPD/EPN motifs. General significance Versatility of the C-type carbohydrate-recognition domain structure in the recognition of various carbohydrate chains could become a promising platform to develop novel molecular recognition proteins.

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