In the present study, the relationship between the consumption of dietary fiber or fermented foodsand depressive symptoms was investigated. The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the Center forEpidemiologic Studies Depression（ CES-D） scale, and consumption of foods was measured by a self-administered diethistory questionnaire. Participants scoring less than 16 were considered as the low CES-D score group, and thosescoring 16 or higher were considered as the high CES-D score group. The total intake of dietary fiber from potatoes,pulses, fungi, vegetables, and fruits was not significantly different between the low and high CES-D score groups, butwas significantly different for the frequency of the consumption of yogurt or fermented soybeans. Additionally, noparticipant who had eaten fermented soybeans daily was in the high CES-D score group. In conclusion, the frequencyof the consumption of yogurt or fermented soybeans may be negatively associated with depressive symptoms.Furthermore, the habit of eating fermented soybeans daily may be associated with scoring less than 16 on the CES-D scale in Japanese adults.