||最初の重複障害教育としての山梨盲学校での盲ろう児指導 ─ 映画『盲ろう児─ その教育』をより深く理解するために─
The First Experimental Education of the Deaf-Blind Children at the Yamanashi School for the Blind
清水, 貞夫 ,
玉村, 公二彦 ,
木下, 理恵越野, 和之
51 , 2017-11-30 , 奈良教育大学
Sadanao Horie, new principal of the Yamanashi School for the Blind was doing the field work all around Yamanashi Prefecture to find out a deaf or blind child. That’s because the Yamanashi School for the Blind had low school attendance rate though New School Law required any deaf and blind children to attend the schools for the blind or the schools for the deaf without any excuse. Horie happened to find a deaf-blind child named Tadao(male age 5 : 1, lost of sight and hearing at age 1 : 9) on his way of field working. Tadao entered the Yamanashi School for the Blind in 1949. He was the first deaf-blind child in Japan. A year and a half later another deaf-blind child named Shigeko (female, age 7 : 3, loss of sight and hearing at age 1 : 3) came to the School from Yokohama. Tadao and Shigeko lived at attached boarding house to walk to the School to be the first students to be successfully educated in Japan. They had no gestural signs when they entered the School. Teachers and boarding staff began to train the basic living habits: walking, dressing and undressing, eating keeping themselves clean, sleeping at regular hours, etc. In addition, they learned about thirty different gestural signs to make their daily life smooth. They, however, began to show the refusal to training when teachers introduced the Braille. Tadao even refused to touch the Braille and Shigeko also didn’t even feel the dots of the Braille letters.The Yamanasi School of the Blind consulted with Hatizoh Umezu of Tokyo University. Umezu analyzed the difficulties and problems which Tadao and Shigeko met and proposed the new plan of teaching.The new plan was based on the differences between blind-deaf and normal persons which affect the formation of verbal behavior. Umezu’s new plan could give way to overcoming of problems in teaching the Braille. Tadao and Shigeko became to be able to communicate using the Braille with others. After learning the Braille they learned the manual alphabets and speech. The documentary film “deaf-blind children; Their teaching and learning” (directed by Mitsuo Tokunaga and produced by Takatake Mitsi) photographed learning and teaching of three deaf-blind children (Tadao, Shigeko and Kazunori). Kazunori was the third deaf-blind child who entered the Yamanashi School for the Blind later than Tadao and Shigeko in 1960. Kazunori became almost deaf, but could hear the sound of drums and lost sight at 3 years of age. He was very skillful at manipulating mechanical objects and had about 20 signs. In the film we can see Kazunori riding a bicycle. The scene of Kazunori riding a bicycle will surely encourage the sprits of teachers of the handicapped children. This article aims to help the readers understand both the development of training of the three deaf-blind children and the socio-educational background of the three children. The greatness of this film could be fully grasped with knowledge of Japanese educational scene at postwar period. In fact the teachers of children with disabilities began to direct their interest toward the severely multihandicapped children by this film.