Although parathyroid hormone is known to be related with calcium and phosphate metabolism, it has been also reported to have several effects on the cardiovascular system including heart and vessels. However, the detailed pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Clinical studies have indicated that parathyroid hormone is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality not only in patients with chronic kidney disease but also in those without chronic kidney disease. As a possible mechanism, it is thought that parathyroid hormone is associated with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and has direct effects on the cardiovascular system. Therefore, we should pay attention to not only the control of serum phosphate and calcium levels but also the control of serum parathyroid hormone levels, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease.