Journal Article Uncertainty Flow Facilitates Zero-Shot Multi-Label Learning in Affective Facial Analysis

Bai, Wenjun  ,  Quan, Changqin  ,  Luo, Zhiwei

8 ( 2 )  , p.300 , 2018-02-19 , MDPI
To lower the single-label dependency on affective facial analysis, it urges the fruition of multi-label affective learning. The impediment to practical implementation of existing multi-label algorithms pertains to scarcity of scalable multi-label training datasets. To resolve this, an inductive transfer learning based framework, i.e., Uncertainty Flow, is put forward in this research to allow knowledge transfer from a single labelled emotion recognition task to a multi-label affective recognition task. I.e., the model uncertainty-which can be quantified in Uncertainty Flow-is distilled from a single-label learning task. The distilled model uncertainty ensures the later efficient zero-shot multi-label affective learning. On the theoretical perspective, within our proposed Uncertainty Flow framework, the feasibility of applying weakly informative priors, e.g., uniform and Cauchy prior, is fully explored in this research. More importantly, based on the derived weight uncertainty, three sets of prediction related uncertainty indexes, i.e., soft-max uncertainty, pure uncertainty and uncertainty plus are proposed to produce reliable and accurate multi-label predictions. Validated on our manual annotated evaluation dataset, i.e., the multi-label annotated FER2013, our proposed Uncertainty Flow in multi-label facial expression analysis exhibited superiority to conventional multi-label learning algorithms and multi-label compatible neural networks. The success of our proposed Uncertainty Flow provides a glimpse of future in continuous, uncertain, and multi-label affective computing.

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