||DHHC5-mediated palmitoylation of S1P receptor subtype 1 determines G-protein coupling
Badawy, Shaymaa Mohamed Mohamed ,
Okada, Taro ,
Kajimoto, Taketoshi ,
Ijuin, TakeshiNakamura, Shun-ichi
7p.16552 , 2017-11-29 , Nature Publishing Group
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a pleiotropic lipid mediator involved in the regulation of immune cell trafficking and vascular permeability acting mainly through G-protein-coupled S1P receptors (S1PRs). However, mechanism underlying how S1PRs are coupled with G-proteins remains unknown. Here we have uncovered that palmitoylation of a prototypical subtype S1P(1)R is prerequisite for subsequent inhibitory G-protein (Gi) coupling. We have identified DHHC5 as an enzyme for palmitoylation of S1P1R. Under basal conditions, S1P(1)R was functionally associated with DHHC5 in the plasma membranes (PM) and was fully palmitoylated, enabling Gi coupling. Upon stimulation, the receptor underwent internalisation leaving DHHC5 in PM, resulting in depalmitoylation of S1P(1)R. We also revealed that while physiological agonist S1P-induced endocytosed S1P(1)R readily recycled back to PM, pharmacological FTY720-P-induced endocytosed S1P(1)R-positive vesicles became associated with DHHC5 in the later phase, persistently transmitting Gi signals there. This indicates that FTY720-P switches off the S1P signal in PM, while switching on its signal continuously inside the cells. We propose that DHHC5-mediated palmitoylation of S1P(1)R determines Gi coupling and its signalling in a spatio/ temporal manner.