Journal Article Validation of the Japanese version of the Central Sensitization Inventory in patients with musculoskeletal disorders

Tanaka, Katsuyoshi  ,  Nishigami, Tomohiko  ,  Mibu, Akira  ,  Manfuku, Masahiro  ,  Yono, Satoko  ,  Shinohara, Yoshikazu  ,  Tanabe, Akihito  ,  Ono, Rei

12 ( 12 )  , p.e0188719 , 2017-12-07 , Public Library Science
Background Many musculoskeletal pain conditions are characterized by hypersensitivity, which is induced by central sensitization (CS). A questionnaire, the Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI), was recently developed to help clinicians identify patients whose presenting symptoms may be related to central sensitivity syndrome (CSS). The aims of the present study were to examine criterion validity and construct validity of the Japanese version of the CSI (CSI-J), and to investigate prevalence rates of CS severity levels in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Methods Translation of the CSI into Japanese was conducted using a forward-backward method. Two hundred and ninety patients with musculoskeletal pain disorders completed the resultant CSI-J. A subset of the patients (n = 158) completed the CSI-J again one week later. The relationships between CSI and clinical symptoms, EuroQol 5-dimension (EQ-5D) and Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), were examined for criterion validity. EQ-5D assesses Health-related QOL and BPI measures pain intensity and pain interference. The psychometric properties were evaluated with analyses of construct validity, factor structure and internal consistency, and subsequently investigate the prevalence rates of CS severity levels. Results The CSI-J demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.89) and test-retest reliability was excellent value (ICC = 0.85). The CSI-J was significantly correlated with EQ-5D (r = −0.44), pain intensity (r = 0.42), and pain interference (r = 0.48) (p < 0.01 for all). Ten percent of the participants were above the cutoff “40”. The exploratory factor analysis resulted in 5-factor model. Conclusions This study reported that the CSI-J was a useful and psychometrically sound tool to assess CSS in Japanese patients with musculoskeletal disorders. The finding of the prevalence rates of CS severity levels in patients with musculoskeletal disorders may help clinicians to decide strategy of treatment.

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