Journal Article Automated prediction of emphysema visual score using homology-based quantification of low-attenuation lung region

Nishio, Mizuho  ,  Nakane, Kazuaki  ,  Kubo, Takeshi  ,  Yakami, Masahiro  ,  Emoto, Yutaka  ,  Nishio, Mari  ,  Togashi, Kaori

12 ( 5 )  , p.e0178217 , 2017-05-25 , Public Library Science
Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between visual score of emphysema and homology-based emphysema quantification (HEQ) and evaluate whether visual score was accurately predicted by machine learning and HEQ. Materials and methods A total of 115 anonymized computed tomography images from 39 patients were obtained from a public database. Emphysema quantification of these images was performed by measuring the percentage of low-attenuation lung area (LAA%). The following values related to HEQ were obtained: nb(0) and nb(1). LAA% and HEQ were calculated at various threshold levels ranging from -1000 HU to -700 HU. Spearman's correlation coefficients between emphysema quantification and visual score were calculated at the various threshold levels. Visual score was predicted by machine learning and emphysema quantification (LAA% or HEQ). Random Forest was used as a machine learning algorithm, and accuracy of prediction was evaluated by leave-one-patient-out cross validation. The difference in the accuracy was assessed using McNemar's test. Results The correlation coefficients between emphysema quantification and visual score were as follows: LAA% (-950 HU), 0.567; LAA% (-910 HU), 0.654; LAA% (-875 HU), 0.704; nb(0) (-950 HU), 0.552; nb(0) (-910 HU), 0.629; nb(0) (-875 HU), 0.473; nb(1) (-950 HU), 0.149; nb(1) (-910 HU), 0.519; and nb(1) (-875 HU), 0.716. The accuracy of prediction was as follows: LAA%, 55.7% and HEQ, 66.1%. The difference in accuracy was statistically significant (p = 0.0290). Conclusion LAA% and HEQ at -875 HU showed a stronger correlation with visual score than those at -910 or -950 HU. HEQ was more useful than LAA% for predicting visual score.

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