||The mechanisms underlying the muscle metaboreflex modulation of sweating and cutaneous blood flow in passively heated humans
Haqani, Baies ,
Fujii, Naoto ,
Kondo, NarihikoKenny, Glen P.
, p.e13123 , 2017-02 , Wiley
Metaboreceptors can modulate cutaneous blood flow and sweating during heat stress but the mechanisms remain unknown. Fourteen participants (31 ± 13 years) performed 1-min bout of isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise at 60% of their maximal voluntary contraction followed by a 3-min occlusion (OCC), each separated by 10 min, initially under low (LHS, to activate sweating without changes in core temperature) and high (HHS, whole-body heating to a core temperature increase of 1.0°C) heat stress conditions. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate were measured continuously at four forearm skin sites perfused with 1) lactated Ringer's solution (Control), 2) 10 mmol L-NAME [inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS)], 3) 10 mmol Ketorolac [inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX)], or 4) 4 mmol theophylline (THEO; inhibits adenosine receptors). Relative to pre-IHG levels with Control, NOS inhibition attenuated the metaboreceptor-mediated increase in sweating under LHS and HHS (P ≤ 0.05), albeit the attenuation was greater under LHS (P ≤ 0.05). In addition, a reduction from baseline was observed with THEO under LHS during OCC (P ≤ 0.05), but not HHS (both P > 0.05). In contrast, CVC was lower than Control with L-NAME during OCC in HHS (P ≤ 0.05), but not LHS (P > 0.05). We show that metaboreceptor activation modulates CVC via the stimulation of NOS and adenosine receptors, whereas NOS, but not COX or adenosine receptors, contributes to sweating at all levels of heating.