The new Japanese Curriculum Guidelines, which the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology announced in March 2017, aim for a “curriculum that is open toward society” so that the rising generation may adapt to changing circumstances. It is widely accepted that “openness toward society” has been a central goal of citizenship education throughout the world since the 1990s. Gert J. J. Biesta points out that citizenship education today excessively leans toward “socialization”, thereby impeding “subjectification”. According to Biesta, citizenship education without “subjectification” forces students everywhere to adapt to the social status quo while preventing them from adopting a critical attitude toward it. What is the present state of balance between “socialization” and “subjectification” in Japan? This paper examines recent trends in this country's citizenship education, looking at the subject “Human Beings and Society” that has been newly added to high school curricula in Tokyo. The new subject obviously attaches importance to socialization, but it does not exclude the aspect of societal change, especially in the context of “political literacy”. This state is attributable to the circumstance that the age of suffrage was lowered from twenty to eighteen last year. However, diversity and dissent, the essentials of “subjectification”, remain marginalized.