Departmental Bulletin Paper 「望ましい職業観・勤労観」と「社会への開かれ」の連続と非連続 ―新教育運動が示唆するもの―
Integrating "Openness toward Society" with "Desirable Attitude toward Work and Occupation" ―Lessons from Early 20th Century New Education―

伊藤, 敏子  ,  ITO, Toshiko

Description
Educational policy often - especially in times of change - stresses the need for "openness toward society" so that the rising generation may adapt to changed circumstances. According to Japan's latest Central Education Council report (2016), teaching guidelines in 2020 should aim for a "curriculum that is open toward society". The teaching of "openness toward society" is also central to career education in its aim to cultivate a "desirable attitude toward work and occupation", which the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has been promoting since 2004. It is no coincidence that many proponents of the New Education movement in the early twentieth century - a time of great change - considered "openness toward society" indispensable to the cultivation of a "desirable attitude toward work and occupation". This article examines the outcome of this effort to integrate the two concepts in New Education - specifically in German activity school (Arbeitsschulen) - which set a precedent that strongly resonates with contemporary policy. The comparison of the results obtained by two separate German activity schools suggests that success or failure correlate with thet reatment of activities either as a matter of everyday routine or as a matter of annual events.
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