Departmental Bulletin Paper <研究ノート> レポート採点基準の開発と大学の一般教養科目で学生の文章力を向上させる取り組み
A Report on the Adoption of Evaluation Criteria for Essays in a General Class for Freshmen at a Japanese University

和田, 正法  ,  WADA, Masanori

1pp.37 - 48 , 2016-03-31 , 三重大学教養教育機構
This paper reports the author’s efforts to improve the ability of freshmen students to write essays at a Japanese university. To achieve this goal, the author proposes criteria for evaluating essays. Japan has three problems to be solved in writing education. First, in the Japanese education system, students do not have a chance to learn writing systematically. Thus, college teachers are forced to read many immature essays. Second, students think that the evaluation of essays is unreliable because they feel it depends on a marker’s biased assessment. As a result, students do not have a clear goal when writing essays. Third, there is too much labor required for teachers to evaluate those essays fairly. Thus, they are reluctant to introduce essays into their classes for grading. These three problems cause a vicious cycle in writing education. This paper provides two suggestions to improve the situation:(1)to adopt clear criteria for the evaluation of essays. The criteria will be a distinct goal for students, and give assurances about the reliability of the evaluation; and(2)to train students by writing short essays on a continuous basis to help them acquire basic skills of academic writing. The adoption of peer review among students also increases the effectiveness of writing education because it enables them to understand the reader’s perspective. The implementation of these ideas improves students’ ability to write without increasing teachers’ labor. The author implemented writing education in two history of science and technology classes, and two science and technology studies classes at Mie University in 2015. The result shows that these two suggestions can be applied to any classes in which essays are included for grading.

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