The purpose of this study is to reveal the regional characteristics of pit dwellings of the Nalychevo Culture that are distributed in Southern Kamchatka and the Northern Kuril Islands between the 15th and the 19th centuries. Materials examined in this study are semi-subterranean residences excavated at the Nalychevo 9 and the Listvennichnaya II sites in Southern Kamchatka as well as instances from the Northern Kuril Islands. As a result of analysis, we found that there are differences in building technique, a method for making a hearth (or a furnace), and the post arrangement between Southern Kamchatka and the Northern Kurils, while other elements are common in these regions. This indicates that archaeological sites in Southern Kamchatka were not necessarily remained by a seasonal occupation of hunter-fishers from the Northern Kurils, but two different human groups settled in Southern Kamchatka and the Northern Kurils respectively. Finally, we compare characteristics of pit dwellings in the regions to those in Sakhalin. Although the origin of these pit dwellings could not be clarified, we highlight that Sakhalin is still one of the strong candidates for the homeland of pit dwellings in Southern Kamchatka and the Northern Kurils.