Journal Article 9,10-Dihydrophenanthrene with Two Spiro(dibenzocycloheptatriene) Units : A Highly Strained Caged Hydrocarbon Exhibiting Reversible Electrochromic Behavior

Ishigaki, Yusuke  ,  Hayashi, Yuki  ,  Sugawara, Kazuma  ,  Shimajiri, Takuya  ,  Nojo, Wataru  ,  Katoono, Ryo  ,  Suzuki, Takanori

22 ( 11 )  , p.1900 , 2017-11 , MDPI
The title dispiro hydrocarbon 1 was designed as a new electrochromic material. This multiply clamped hexaphenylethane-type electron donor was prepared from 2,2'-diiodobiphenyl via biphenyl-2,2'-diylbis(dibenzotropylium) 2(2+) salt. X-ray analysis of 1 revealed a highly strained structure as reflected by an elongated ethane bond [bond length: 1.6665(17) angstrom] and nearly eclipsed conformation. The weakened bond was cleaved upon two-electron oxidation to regenerate the deeply colored dication 2(2+). The reversible interconversion between 1 and 2(2+) is accompanied not only by a drastic color change but also by C-C bond formation/cleavage. Thus, the voltammogram showed a pair of well-separated redox waves, which is characteristic of "dynamic redox (dyrex)" behavior. The tetrahydro derivative of 1 with two units of spiro(dibenzocycloheptadiene), which suffers from more severe steric congestion, was also prepared. The crystallographically determined bond length for the central C-C bond [1.705(4) angstrom] is greatest among the values reported for 9,9,10,10-tetraaryl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives.

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