Departmental Bulletin Paper 子どもが学びに向かう姿の研究 : 1人の子どもの学びに向かう姿の変化に注目して

今田, 章子

129pp.91 - 114 , 2017-12-22 , 北海道大学大学院教育学研究院
本論文では,子どもが学ぶとはどういうことかを探究するため,1人の子どもKくん (仮名)の変化に注目し,その学びに向かう姿を描きだすことを試みた。  その際,観察者である私が,間主観的にKくんの姿を感じ取り,その学びを捉えるために, エピソード記述を用いた。  Kくんは,他の子どもたちと学ぶ経験を通して,他者や自分の意見との向き合い方を変え, 学びに向かう姿を変化させていく。その変化は,一見すると消極的になったととられかねない ものだが,Kくんの表情や発言からは学びの深まりや喜びをうかがい知ることができる。子ど もたちが学びの深まりや喜びを感じながら授業への参加の意味を変化させ,それに呼応するよ うに他の子どもたちも変化するということが,学びに向かう姿の一つの現れである。  こうした仕草や小さな変化の中から,子どもの学びに向かう姿を捉えられたことが本研究の 意義であるといえる。
This research attempts to grasp the appearances of a child who is learning by focusing on his changes to explore how a child learns. I participated in a class of a public elementary school for almost 2 years, and observed the children who were learning. Three episodes described in this paper were all taken from my actual experiences. In these episodes I focused on a boy named K who was in 5th grade. I used Episode Description as a research methodology to sense the appearances of K intersubjectively and to grasp his learning. K changed the way to deal with his own opinions and others through the experiences of learning with other children and changed his attitude toward learning. It seems that he changed from active to passive in learning at a first glance. But from his expressions and utterances, we can acknowledge the deepening of his learning as well as his joy for learning. It is one example of how a child changes the meaning of his participation in class. The changes were found not only in K but also in other children. They changed their attitude to interact with K and to express their opinions. They influenced each other and changed little by little. It can be said that the significance of this research is that it was able to capture the concrete appearances of a child who is learning from his actual gestures and small changes by using Episode Description.

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