||Remodeling of the Extracellular Matrix by Endothelial Cell-Targeting siRNA Improves the EPR-Based Delivery of 100 nm Particles
Sakurai, Yu ,
Hada, Tomoya ,
Yamamoto, Shoshiro ,
Kato, Akari ,
Mizumura, WataruHarashima, Hideyoshi
2099 , 2016-12 , Cell Press
A number of nano drug delivery systems have recently been developed for cancer treatment, most of which are based on the enhanced permeability and retention effect. The advantages of the enhanced permeability and retention effect can be attributed to immature vasculature. Herein we evaluated the intratumoral distribution of lipid nanoparticles when the VEGF receptor 2 on tumor endothelial cells was inhibited by liposomal siRNA. VEGF receptor 2 inhibition resulted in an increase in intratumoral distribution and therapeutic efficacy despite the maturation of the tumor vasculature. A small molecule inhibitor against matrix metalloproteinase and macrophage depletion cancelled the improvement in the distribution of the lipid nanoparticles, suggesting that remodeling of tumor microenvironment played a role in the facilitated intratumoral distribution via the downregulation of VEGF receptor 2. Accordingly, our results suggest that the enhanced permeability and retention effect is dependent, not only on the structure of the tumor vasculature, but also on the dynamics of the tumor microenvironment including extracellular matrix remodeling. Regulating the tumor microenvironment and the extracellular matrix by delivering tumor endothelial cell-targeting siRNA could potentiate the enhanced permeability and retention effect-based strategy.