Journal Article The relationship between a low grain intake dietary pattern and impulsive behaviors in middle-aged Japanese people

Toyomaki, Atsuhito  ,  Koga, Minori  ,  Okada, Emiko  ,  Nakai, Yukiei  ,  Miyazaki, Akane  ,  Tamakoshi, Akiko  ,  Kiso, Yoshinobu  ,  Kusumi, Ichiro

12 ( 7 )  , p.e0181057 , 2017-07-13 , The Public Library of Science
Several studies indicate that dietary habits are associated with mental health. We are interested in identifying not a specific single nutrient/food group but the population preferring specific food combinations that can be related to mental health. Very few studies have examined relationships between dietary patterns and multifaceted mental states using cluster analysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate population-level dietary patterns associated with mental state using cluster analysis. We focused on depressive state, sleep quality, subjective well-being, and impulsive behaviors using rating scales. Two hundred and seventy-nine Japanese middle-aged people participated in the present study. Dietary pattern was estimated using a brief self-administered diet-history questionnaire (the BDHQ). We conducted K-means cluster analysis using thirteen BDHQ food groups: milk, meat, fish, egg, pulses, potatoes, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, mushrooms, seaweed, sweets, fruits, and grain. We identified three clusters characterized as "vegetable and fruit dominant," "grain dominant," and "low grain tendency" subgroups. The vegetable and fruit dominant group showed increases in several aspects of subjective wellbeing demonstrated by the SF-8. Differences in mean subject characteristics across clusters were tested using ANOVA. The low frequency intake of grain group showed higher impulsive behavior, demonstrated by BIS-11 deliberation and sum scores. The present study demonstrated that traditional Japanese dietary patterns, such as eating rice, can help with beneficial changes in mental health.

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