Journal Article Association between suicide-related ideations and affective temperaments in the Japanese general adult population

Mitsui, Nobuyuki  ,  Nakai, Yukiei  ,  Inoue, Takeshi  ,  Udo, Niki  ,  Kitagawa, Kan  ,  Wakatsuki, Yumi  ,  Kameyama, Rie  ,  Toyomaki, Atsuhito  ,  Ito, Yoichi M.  ,  Kitaichi, Yuji  ,  Nakagawa, Shin  ,  Kusumi, Ichiro

12 ( 6 )  , p.e0179952 , 2017-06-22 , The Public Library of Science
Background: Suicide rates are vastly higher in Japan than in many other countries, although the associations between affective temperaments and suicide-related ideations in the general adult population remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate these associations in the present study. Methods: We analyzed data from 638 Japanese volunteers who completed both the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Participants were then divided into three groups based on PHQ-9 summary scores and responses to the suicide-related ideation item: non-depressive control group (NC; N = 469), depressive symptoms without suicide-related ideations group (non-SI; N = 135), and depressive symptoms with suicide-related ideations group (SI; N = 34). The depressive symptoms were defined for PHQ-9 summary scores ≥5, and the suicide-related ideations were defined for PHQ-9 #9 score ≥1. We then compared TEMPS-A scores among the groups using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Then the 95% confidence intervals of differences in TEMPS-A subscale scores between the NC and non-SI groups, or between NC and SI groups, were calculated. Results: Participants of the SI group exhibited significantly higher scores on the depressive, irritable, and anxious temperament subscales than those of the non-SI group. Similarly, women of the SI group exhibited significantly higher scores of the depressive and irritable temperament subscales than women of the non-SI group, while men of the SI group exhibited significantly higher depressive temperament scores than those of the non-SI group. Among all participants and only men, cyclothymic subscale scores were higher in those of the SI group than the non-SI group (not significant), although the 95% confidence intervals did not overlap. Limitations: The cross-sectional study design was the main limitation. Conclusions: Depressive, irritable, and anxious temperaments are significant risk factors for suicide-related ideations in the Japanese general adult population. Furthermore, irritable temperament in women and depressive temperament in men are associated with suicide-related ideations.

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