||Production and Reutilization of Fluorescent Dissolved Organic Matter by a Marine Bacterial Strain, Alteromonas macleodii
Goto, Shuji ,
Tada, Yuya Suzuki, Koji ,
Frontiers in microbiology
8p.507 , 2017-03-28 , Frontiers Media
The recalcitrant fraction of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in carbon storage on the earth's surface. Bacterial production of recalcitrant DOM (RDOM) has been proposed as a carbon sequestration process. It is still unclear whether bacterial physiology can affect RDOM production. In this study, we conducted a batch culture using the marine bacterial isolate Alteromonas macleodii, a ubiquitous gammaproteobacterium, to evaluate the linkage between bacterial growth and DOM production. Glucose (1 mmol C L-1) was used as the sole carbon source, and the bacterial number, the DOM concentration in terms of carbon, and the excitationemission matrices (EEMs) of DOM were monitored during the 168-h incubation. The incubation period was partitioned into the exponential growth (0-24 h) and stationary phases (24-168 h) based on the growth curve. Although the DOM concentration decreased during the exponential growth phase due to glucose consumption, it remained stable during the stationary phase, corresponding to approximately 4% of the initial glucose in terms of carbon. Distinct fluorophores were not evident in the EEMs at the beginning of the incubation, but DOM produced by the strain exhibited five fluorescent peaks during exponential growth. Two fluorescent peaks were similar to protein-like fluorophores, while the others could be categorized as humiclike fluorophores. All fluorophores increased during the exponential growth phase. The tryptophan-like fluorophore decreased during the stationary phase, suggesting that the strain reused the large exopolymer. The tyrosine-like fluorophore seemed to be stable during the stationary phase, implying that the production of tyrosine containing small peptides through the degradation of exopolymers was correlated with the reutilization of the tyrosine-like fluorophore. Two humic-like fluorophores that showed emission maxima at the longer wavelength (525 nm) increased during the stationary phase, while the other humic-like fluorophore, which had a shorter emission wavelength (400 nm) and was categorized as recalcitrant, was stable. These humic-like fluorophore behaviors during incubation indicated that the composition of bacterial humic-like fluorophores, which were unavailable to the strain, differed between growth phases. Our results suggest that bacterial physiology can affect RDOM production and accumulation in the ocean interior.