Journal Article Change in F18-Fluoromisonidazole PET Is an Early Predictor of the Prognosis in the Patients with Recurrent High-Grade Glioma Receiving Bevacizumab Treatment

Yamaguchi, Shigeru  ,  Hirata, Kenji  ,  Toyonaga, Takuya  ,  Kobayashi, Kentaro  ,  Ishi, Yukitomo  ,  Motegi, Hiroaki  ,  Kobayashi, Hiroyuki  ,  Shiga, Tohru  ,  Tamaki, Nagara  ,  Terasaka, Shunsuke  ,  Houkin, Kiyohiro

11 ( 12 )  , p.e0167917 , 2016-12-09 , Public Library of Science
Background: Bevacizumab (BEV), a humanized monoclonal antibody, become a currently important chemotherapeutic option for the patients with recurrent glioma. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate whether 18F-Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET have the potential to detect BEV-resistant gliomas in the early-stage. Methods: We reviewed the FMISO PET and MRI appearances before and 3 to 4 courses after BEV treatment on 18 recurrent glioma patients. FMISO accumulation was assessed by visual inspection and semi-quantitative values which were tumor-to-normal (T/N) ratio and hypoxic volume. MRI responses were evaluated based on RANO (Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology) criteria. The prognostic analysis was performed in relation to the response assessment by FMISO PET and MRI using overall survival (OS) after BEV application. Results: After BEV application, MRI revealed partial response in 14 of 18 patients (78%), of which 9 patients also demonstrated decreased FMISO accumulation. These 9 patients (50%) were classified as "MRI-FMISO double responder". As for the other 5 patients (28%), FMISO accumulation volumes increased or remained stable after BEV treatment although partial responses were achieved on MRI. Therefore, these cases were classified as "MRI-only responder". The remaining 4 patients (22%) did not show treatment response on FMISO PET or MRI ("non-responder"). MRI-FMISO double responders showed significantly longer OS than that in other groups (median 12.4 vs 5.7 months; P < 0.001), whereas there were no overall survival difference between MRI-only responders and non-responders (median OS, 5.7 and 4.8 months; P = 0.58). Among the pre-treatment clinical factors, high FMISO T/N ratio was a significant prognostic factor of overall survival in these patients under the assessment of Cox proportional hazard model. Conclusions: Recurrent gliomas with decreasing FMISO accumulation after short-term BEV application could derive a survival benefit from BEV treatment. Change in FMISO PET appearance can identify BEV-resistant gliomas in early-stage regardless of MRI findings in a comprehensible way.

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