||Cold Exposure Induces Proliferation of Mature Brown Adipocyte in a beta 3-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Pathway
Fukano, Keigo Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko ,
Tsubota, Ayumi Nio-Kobayashi, Junko ,
, p.e0166579 , 2016-11-15 , PLOS
Hyperplasia of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a fundamental mechanism for adaptation to survive in the cold environment in rodents. To determine which cell types comprising BAT contribute to tissue hyperplasia, immunohistochemical analysis using a proliferative marker Ki67 was performed on the BAT from 6-week-old C57BLJ6J mice housed at 23 degrees C (control) or 10 degrees C (cold) for 5 days. Interestingly, in the control group, the cell proliferative marker Ki67 was detected in the nuclei of uncoupling protein 1-positive mature brown adipocytes (7.2% +/- 0.4% of brown adipocyte), as well as in the non-adipocyte stromal-vascular (SV) cells (19.6% +/- 2.3% of SV cells), which include preadiopocytes. The percentage of Ki67-positive brown adipocytes increased to 25.6% +/- 1.8% at Day 1 after cold exposure and was significantly higher than the non-cold acclimated control until Day 5 (21.8%+/- 1.7%). On the other hand, the percentage of Ki67-positive SV cells gradually increased by a cold exposure and peaked to 42.1%+/- 8.3% at Day 5. Injection of a beta 3-adrenergic receptor (beta 3-AR) agonist for continuous 5 days increased the number of Ki67-positive brown adipocytes even at Day 1 but not that of SV cells. In addition, the beta 3-AR antagonist, but not beta 1-AR antagonist, attenuated the cold exposure-induced increase in the number of Ki67-positive brown adipocytes. These results suggest that mature brown adipocytes proliferate immediately after cold exposure in a beta 3-AR-mediated pathway. Thus, proliferation of mature brown adipocytes as well as preadipocytes in SV cells may contribute to cold exposure-induced BAT hyperplasia.