Departmental Bulletin Paper ラテン語文法書における educare の語釈と用例 : ノニウス・マルケッルス『学説集』とエウテュケス『動詞論』を中心に

白水, 浩信

126pp.139 - 154 , 2016-06-30 , 北海道大学大学院教育学研究院
ISSN:1882-1669
Description
近年の研究の進展により,‘education’を「引き出すこと」とする教育学神話から離れて,語の本来の歴史が解明されつつある。‘education’とはラテン語 educere(引き出す)ではなく,人間,動物,植物にまで用いられた educare(養い育てる)に由来する。本研究は educare の用例を古典ラテン語文献に求め,用いられた文脈,語義を明らかにすることを目ざすものである。  本稿では,ラテン語文法書における educare の語釈に焦点を絞って検討する。ノニウス・マルケッルス『学説集』とエウテュケスの『動詞論』を取りあげる。これらは中世においてラテン語文法の教科書として利用され,重要な史料である。両者ともに,educare を nutrire(栄養を与える)として理解している点は特筆すべきである。また,古代末の文法学者がeducareを educere と区別していた点は強調されてよい。
Where does the word‘education’come from? According to O.E.D ., it is said to be derived from the Latin word educatio into English around the end of 15th century. Resulting from the advance of terminological study on the word of ‘education', we could throw a familiar myth of pedagogy aside. A term of‘educate’derived from not educere which means to educe, but educare which implies to nourish mankind, animal and even plant. This study aims to assemble a great number of quotations containing educare in the Latin literature, and to analysis the signification in their own contexts. In this paper, citations of educare in two books of Latin grammar are focused on. One is De Compendiosa Doctorina which was written by Nonius Marcellus in the 4th century. The other is Ars de Verbo by Euthyches about the 6th century. These books were historically precious sources, because scholars and disciples referred to them as a glossary of Latin in the Middle Ages. It is worth mentioning that both N. Marcellus and Euthyches insisted that educare should be nutrire : nourishing. Their arguments grounded on a variety of exemplary citations: Varro's Cato: or the educator , Plautus' Menaechmuses , Accius' Andromeda , and Vergil's Aeneid . It is certain that Latin grammarian in the late Antiquity could explicitly distinguish educare from other similar verb educere.
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http://eprints.lib.hokudai.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2115/62512/1/070-1882-1669-126.pdf

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