Journal Article Comparisons of urinary phthalate metabolites and daily phthalate intakes among Japanese families

Bamai, Yu Ait  ,  Araki, Atsuko  ,  Kawai, Toshio  ,  Tsuboi, Tazuru  ,  Yoshioka, Eiji  ,  Kanazawa, Ayako  ,  Cong, Shi  ,  Kishi, Reiko

We measured urinary phthalate metabolites, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-isobutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), from 178 school-aged children and their 284 family members using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and we calculated daily phthalate intakes. The highest median levels of phthalate metabolites were for mono-isobutyl phthalate in all participants except schoolchildren, where the highest levels were for mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Comparing the schoolchildren with their parents, the schoolchildren had significantly higher urinary metabolites for MEOHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate, and EDEHP. Regarding daily intakes, the schoolchildren had significantly higher daily intakes of DnBP, BBzP, and EDEHP. All phthalate metabolite and sums of metabolite levels in the schoolchildren were positively correlated with their mothers' levels, except for MEHP, whereas fathers were less correlated with their children. The DEHP intake in this study was higher than that of most other studies. Moreover, 10% of the children and 3% of the adults exceeded the Reference Dose (RfD) value (20 mu g/kg/day) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, which indicates that it is important to focus on children's DEHP exposure because the children exceeded the RID more than adults among the same families who shared similar exposure sources. Our results will contribute to considerations of the regulations for some phthalates and the actual phthalate exposure levels in the Japanese population. (C) 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

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