紀要論文 筋力トレーニングと血管機能

堀内, 雅弘

125pp.63 - 78 , 2016-03-30 , 北海道大学大学院教育学研究院
ISSN:1882-1669
内容記述
高齢社会の現代,高血圧や動脈硬化といった生活習慣病に加え,老人性筋萎縮症が大きな問題となっている。有酸素トレーニングにより生活習慣病を改善させる試みは多くなされている。一方,このトレーニングの強度だけでは,老人性筋萎縮症を防ぐには不十分なことも報告されているため,近年では老人性筋萎縮症予防に筋力トレーニングが高齢者にも推奨されている。しかしながら,高強度筋力トレーニングは血圧上昇を伴い,血管機能にも悪影響を及ぼす可能性があるため,必ずしも推奨されるとは言えない。これに代わる方法として,低強度負荷に血流制限を加えることで,筋力増強をもたらす方法が考案された。本総説では,高強度の筋力トレーニングと低強度に血流制限を加えたときの筋力トレーニングが血管機能にどのような影響を及ぼすのかを概観する。
“A man is as old as his arteries”was a favorite axiom of William Osler(1849–1919), sometimes called the “Father of Modern Medicine” and to some extent accurately represents the effect of vascular dysfunction on various aging processes. It is well est ablished that regular aerobic training improves vascular function, for example, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and arterial stiffness or compliance and thereby constitutes a preventative measure against cardiovascular disease. In modern aging society, sarcopenia induced by loss of muscle volume in aged people is becoming an increased problem. However, aerobic training is ins ufficient to inhibit loss in muscular strength with advancing age; thus, resistance training is recommended to prevent sarcopenia. High-intensity resistance training has sufficient stimulus to increase muscle volume and function though this type of training increases blood pressure during exercise. Since elevated blood pressure may worse vascular function, it should be considered to do high–intensity resistance training for elderly. Alternatively, several lines of study have provided compelling data showing that low-intensity resistance exercise and/or training with blood flow restriction (BFR) leads to muscle hypertrophy and strength increase. As such, BFR training might be a novel means of overcoming the contradiction between aerobic and high-intensity resistance training. However, it is not enough evidence to obtain consensus about impact of resistance training either with or without BFR. This paper is a review of the literature on the impact of resistance training with or without BFR training on vascular function, such as endothelial function, arterial compliance, or other potential factors.
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http://eprints.lib.hokudai.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2115/61905/1/03-1882-1669-125.pdf

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